The Harvard referencing system The Harvard referencing system includes the author, the date of the work and the page number in brackets in the body of the text, immediately following the quote or reference.
The IEEE style is a numeric system, where citations are numbered in your text within square brackets e.g. (1).The citation in your text corresponds to a full reference in the list of references at the end of your work. To acknowledge paraphrased ideas the citation number(s) should appear on the same line as the text inside any punctuation.
In the Harvard System, the references are listed in alphabetical order of author's names. If you have cited more than one item by a specific author they should be listed chronologically (earliest first), and by letter (1993a, 1993b) if more than one item has been published during a specific year.
Use the following template to cite a journal using the Harvard citation style. For help with other source types, like books, PDFs, or websites, check out our other guides.To have your reference list or bibliography automatically made for you, try our free citation generator. Key.
The references below are for example only, always check with your tutor which style they would prefer you to use. Further information on referencing, including examples of reference types for Harvard and APA styles, are available via the UCL Institute of Education LibGuides.
The Harvard Referencing style uses the author-date model. This essentially means that the sources cited in an academic writing piece are referenced using the name of the author(s), the date of publication and page number. For example: (Howard 2010, p. 75).
Vancouver is a numbered referencing style. There are variations of the Vancouver style, for example the numbers may be in superscript or brackets and repeated references may be given a new number or use the number previously allocated to the source.
The Harvard referencing system Referencing is a standard practice for acknowledging information sources in academic writing at university. Whenever you write an assignment that requires you to find and use information, you are expected to reference all the sources of information and ideas included in your writing.
This referencing style is widely available in reference management tools, enabling you to automatically create reference lists if you use one of these tools. The Library has a Quick guide to Harvard referencing for use with Cite Them Right, this includes advice on referencing OU module materials and which sections of CTR you might want to use when referencing physical and online module material.
You must also reference all images, tables, and graphs taken from printed or internet sources. Centre for Academic Writing (CAW) has developed a series of academic writing resources, including The Coventry University Guide to Referencing in Harvard Style (PDF), which can be also accessed via LibGuide.
Secondary Referencing in Harvard Style: In some cases, the primary source is not available and then an author refers to another author’s work as a secondary reference. When you cite this type of a work, the author of the primary source and the author of the work it was cited in, should be acknowledged.